Berries Are for the Birds!

Saturday, May 23, 2015

Arapaho Thornless Blackberry Vine
You bet they are! And Bill and the wife that is Venus Bird like it that way! Welcome to May 2015 -- and one of the coolest spring weather patterns I think I've ever experienced in the Sacramento area. That doesn't help much when it comes to summer producing vegetable plants like tomatoes and cucumbers, but the Bird berry patch likes it just fine.

The big winner in this year's berry battle in the Bird Back 40? It should come as no surprise by now. For the second straight year and the fourth year since I brought it home and planted it, the Arapaho Thornless Blackberry is sporting a massive crop of berries that are, in some cases, three inches long and an inch thick. I wrote about this particular variety last year.

Arapaho Blackberries
The Arapaho continues to defy zone logic. The plant professionals claim it's not supposed to do well in this climate. It's more suited for cooler climates not found in my Zone 9A. It's supposed to do better on the coast and up north where it doesn't get quite as hot. But berry plants are funny customers. Arapaho berries grown on a commercial basis on the coast, where it is cooler, suffer from tip dieback. But here in the more inland, hotter, area? The Arapaho does just fine.

Time and study will determine just how well the Arapaho will do in California. Although it's not the most recent introduction from the University of Arkansas breeding program, it's still fairly new to our area and climate. Although it may eventually prove to be a bust on a commercial basis, it seems to do just fine in your ordinary home backyard setting.

Shuksan Strawberry Patch
If there is one big difference in the Bird Back 40 berry battle -- it's that the Arapaho isn't the only berry sporting a fat crop this year. Nope -- it's a tie. For in 2015 there are 20 second-year Shuksan strawberry plants putting on a big show in what will eventually prove to be the largest and most luscious strawberry harvest we've ever experienced in these parts.

The introduction of the Shuksan strawberry has been a years long, trial and (mostly) error, attempt to grow strawberries in the Bird Back 40. I wasn't interested in those small, sweet berries that emerge from most backyard settings. Nope -- I wanted in on the action that comes out of our local strawberry fields: strawberries the size of a golf ball or larger.

Shuksan Strawberries
At first I thought the answer to my berry wishes would be the Chandler Strawberry. The production was, in a word: Meh. Then I thought a combination of Albion and Gaviota strawberries would be the answer. They should do well here, right? That's what the experts told me. It's the recommendation I found online here. In fact, they advised the following: Recommended strawberry varieties for CaliforniaAlbionAromasCamarosaCamino RealChandlerDiamanteGaviota, Oso Grande, Pacific, Seascape, Selva, Ventana.  (According to the California Strawberry Commission)

But guess what kids? Don't believe everything you read online. Yes -- these might be great strawberry selections for some regions of California. But not here in the heat of inland California. It wasn't until I started checking each and every strawberry plant selection offered here, and checking the recommended zones very closely, did I stumble upon the Shuksan Strawberry. Recommended for Zones 4-10. That was my "Eureka" moment.

Bird Back 40 Berry Patch
If this is the kind of production I can expect from 20 second year plants, what happens next year when the additional 40 plants I ordered and planted this year swing into full production? 60 plants instead of 20? How about 80-100 plants? Strawberry overload anyone?

I'll take it.

Despite the very berry success this year -- I'm just getting started. For where there is a bare patch of dirt in the Bird Back 40 -- there's room for another small raised bed and perhaps another berry plant or two. I've got my eye on another recent introduction from the University of Arkansas breeding program. This is one is also thornless. It is called the Ouachita Blackberry -- which does well in gardening zones 5-9.

Because man does not live on blackberries alone. But, personally, I would if I could.

The Stain

Friday, May 15, 2015

Wonderful Pomegranate-Bird Back 40
There she goes again. The Wonderful Pomegranate putting on her usual springtime "look at me, I'm pretty" show. I should have put this tree in the front yard where everyone can enjoy the bonanza of bright red and yellow flowers.

But the one drawback to that idea is I wouldn't get any pomegranate fruit in the fall. Some thieving kid would probably steal it all -- just as I did back in the Modesto day. And who could blame a kid for emulating me? I certainly can't.

Emerging Pomegranate Fruit-Bird Back 40
My passion for fresh fruit was forged by two factors -- neither of which I could control. Number one, I was the youngest of four kids growing up in a single-parent household. There wasn't much money when dad up and left. There wouldn't be much to go around for several years.

What bacon mom did bring home didn't last for long. This was the day and age before "free school lunches," although I do remember on some days we did get a half-pint of milk. That was always a treat.

Pretty Pomegranate Flowers
What I didn't get at home was augmented by what I could scavenge from the fruit trees that dotted front and back yards in our Ribier Avenue neighborhood. Fortunately, they were both large and plentiful. Plums in the front yard, cherries in the backyard. If that peach wasn't in season, the Merritt orange tree most certainly was. This was the second factor I had no control over. The fruit trees were there and I couldn't control myself.

But it would be on a nearby street -- Norwegian Ave. very near McHenry -- where I would discover a fruit like no other. It wasn't the biggest of trees as I recall -- probably no more than six or seven feet. But it shined with bright pink, red and yellow blossoms in the spring and delivered an eye-popping harvest of glistening red, softball sized fruit in the fall.

Pomegranates Here-Pomegranates There
I can remember my mother's first horrific reaction when she discovered I was bringing a bounty of pomegranates into her house. "DON'T EAT THOSE IN HERE," she positively screamed. "They'll leave behind a stain that will never go away!"

But what do mothers know about pomegranates and messy kids anyway? Besides -- it was dusty, old furniture in a Modesto tract home -- not the Taj Mahal. So I did what any snot-nosed kid would do. I promptly ignored mom and cracked those babies open on her freshly polished living room coffee table.

Ain't She Pretty?
Mom was right. Those stains never did quite go away. Thank God Almighty the carpet was a dark, chocolate colored brown. Otherwise those spots would have been plainly visible as well. I don't think the shirt I was wearing on this particular day also survived the onslaught of pomegranate juice. But I can tell you this much: It was on this day that my love for pomegranates was born.

I never did meet the family that owned this particular Norwegian Ave. tree. While I should have tried to knock on their door and at least ask -- I found it much easier to snatch as much as I could and run like the wind for the safety of home. This is a task and practice I repeated for many a year, until I acquired my first job as a newspaper delivery boy for the Modesto Bee. At that point I started to earn enough money to do what normal kids do: eat junk food.

Honey Bee Crack Cocaine
But I will never forget this tree. I hope you remember it too. Because it kept at least one small boy happy and fed when dollars were tight and good times were few and far between. While I could have chosen one of many pomegranate varieties to grow in the Bird Back 40 -- I chose the Wonderful -- which is the standard variety and the same tree that grew in front of that Norwegian Ave. home. And I think now you might understand why.

It's more than just a pretty tree. It's more than just fresh pomegranate juice (which is wonderful by the way). It's a connection to the past that I can never visit again. It's the thought of a mother, who is long since gone. It's a mystical connection that I feel. Because these flowers and this fruit remind me of a special time in my life.

It's a stain actually. A stain on my soul.

Gold Nugget or Crazy Good Mandarin?

Saturday, April 25, 2015

Gold Nugget Mandarin-Bird Back 40
I'll be honest. This past winter restored my faith in citrus. I had one of the best citrus harvests ever on the Dancy Mandarin. And since Mr. Freeze steered clear of much of the Bird Back 40 this past winter, my citrus and avocado plantings sailed right through a mild winter and bloomed like something special this spring.

Know what that means? It means a record harvest later this fall for the Bearss Lime, aka Gin and Tonic, tree. That's what it means! Because when it comes to a mean Gin and Tonic or a mean Tom Collins, a juicy Bearss Lime or three is absolutely essential. That my friends, is fresh drink heaven.

Mister Snow Miser (Not Kind to Citrus)
Last winter was also a far cry from the devastating winter of 2013. Yes -- 2013 was just as dry, if not more so, than 2014. But what 2013 had that 2014 didn't was a long and extended stay by Mister Snow Miser. Do you remember him from your ABC Holiday specials? He's got a thing or two for icicles, and unfortunately he stuck around for far too long in December 2013. By the time he finally departed, the lemons had shriveled into unappetizing black lumps. Oh -- and half of the Gin and Tonic tree decided to take a dirt nap.

Good riddance to 2013!

Part of this past weekend was dedicated to restoring the damage that took place during 2013. The Clementine Mandarin that also checked out permanently that year was replaced this past weekend by something rather special. Say hello to the Gold Nugget Mandarin, plus a little something else extra special.

Yours Truly With Gold Nugget Prize
Do you know how difficult it is to find and purchase a standard sized mandarin tree in this day and age? Try this one on for size: Extremely Difficult. The primary supplier for all things citrus in California, Four Winds Growers, will provide you with plenty of dwarf citrus offerings. You want a dwarf lemon? No problem! Dwarf lime? Got them right here in spades! Dwarf mandarin? Take your pick! Standard size lemon, lime, orange or mandarin? Better luck next year, son.

Why is the primary supplier of citrus in California focusing on dwarf selections? Good question! Ask! I've tried. It's tough to get a straight answer. So what's the problem with dwarf citrus offerings? Dwarf sizes often result in small harvests. The days of that 30 foot tall and 30 foot wide citrus tree are quickly disappearing. Say hello to citrus trees that grow no larger than six or seven feet -- and like it.

Mandarin Trees-Green Acres Nursery
This past weekend just happened to be that very special weekend that the Sacramento Chapter of the California Rare Fruit Growers (CRFG) held its annual citrus scion exchange. You want something special when it comes to all things citrus? Visit the CRFG exchange. You won't find everything under the sun there -- but it's pretty darn close.

I'd heard some good feedback about the Gold Nugget Mandarin. A recently released mandarin developed within the University of California, Riverside citrus breeding program, the Gold Nugget holds up well against freezing conditions (a plus) and also ripens at a time (early March) when most mandarins in the Bird Back 40 have come and gone.

Gold Nugget Mandarins
I tried to find a standard sized Gold Nugget tree. I failed. Miserably. Although the Bird Back 40 is studded with standard sized citrus trees of every shape and variety -- finding a standard sized Gold Nugget was proving to be rather impossible. So, I settled for what was available that day at Green Acres Nursery: a Gold Nugget mandarin tree on dwarf root stock.

BUT -- obtaining that Gold Nugget mandarin tree was just the first part of the battle. You see, that tree would become the root stock that I would use for other varieties offered through the CRFG citrus exchange. I was particularly interested in obtaining scions for two different varieties: the Minneola Tangelo and another variety offered by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). It's so new that it doesn't even have a name yet -- and may never have one. It's known only by number: The 6-15-150.

6-15-150 Mandarin
As soon as the wife that is Venus spotted the scions marked with the number of "15-150," she broke into a wide grin and blurted out "the 5150 mandarin? That's crazy good stuff." That's all she had to say. Consider us sold. Before we departed Maddox Park on this particular weekend, the Gold Nugget Mandarin had been outfitted with a graft of what promises to be a "crazy good mandarin."

The newest mandarin tree to grace the Bird Back 40 has already found it's permanent home. It sits in the spot once occupied by the long-gone Clementine. It's not that I've given up on the Clementine. That's also a right fine mandarin. But all mandarins are not the same. Some have a little more trouble standing up to deep freezes. The Clementine, unfortunately, isn't as cold tolerant as I would like. And since Mr.Snow Miser does like to pay a visit every once in awhile, it's probably best to stick with mandarin varieties that can survive an icicle-challenged night or two.

Dwarf Mandarin Trees-Green Acres Nursery
The graft, which is completely wrapped in grafting tape to keep it safe from water intrusion, hasn't sprouted yet. It may never sprout. Grafting isn't 100 percent foolproof. I know this to be true because my success with citrus grafting is nothing to write home about, unless the piece appears in "Failure Magazine." That's why I had someone with a more experienced hand do the grafting work for me. That's the advantage of membership in a group like the CRFG. That's where you find the really special scion wood -- and someone who knows what they are doing.

Will it turn out to be our favorite mandarin, provided the graft sprouts to life? Good question. I can't tell you. As one CRFG member is fond of saying, "my favorite mandarin happens to be the one I'm eating at that particular moment."

Wise words indeed.

Meet Katie Amaral

Tuesday, March 31, 2015

Katie Amaral (right) of Dave Wilson Nursery
There she is. To your right. That, my friends, is Miss Katie Amaral. And that is your's truly to the left of Katie. This photo was snapped about two weeks ago. For the people that I work with day in and day out at the California State Capitol, you might recognize this as the entry room to the Governor's Office on the first floor of the State Capitol Annex.

That's where I would find Katie Amaral on this fine day. And, although we've known each other for years, this was the first time we actually met in person. Katie and I have been corresponding with one another via email for years. Oh -- nothing to worry about. Nothing insidious here. Yes, the wife that is Venus knows all about Miss Katie. As it turns out -- all three of us share a love for fruit trees.

And, if you love fruit trees as much as we do, Katie happens to hold down the dream job of Marketing Manager for Dave Wilson Nursery in Hickman, CA. They just happen to be the largest provider of fruit trees on the planet. Want to parlay about pluots? Talk to Katie. In pursuit of peaches? You need to see Katie. Compare notes about Nectaplums? See Katie Amaral.

Mark Stromberg
Katie's visit came at an opportune time. That was a rather tough week two weeks ago when this photo was taken. It's been a rough couple of weeks since then. I suppose this reaction is quite normal when a brother-in-law suddenly and surprisingly passes away. And that's exactly what Mark Stromberg did on March 12th. He had just turned 42 years old. He died from triple organ failure.

I know what you're probably thinking. How does an otherwise healthy 42-year old man suddenly and unexpectedly pass from triple organ failure? It's the same question the family is asking. You see, we don't know. We're not doctors. But we are hoping the Sacramento County Coroner can find the answer. Yet -- these types of investigations take time. Autopsy results are still pending.

Venus and Barky
I still don't know how Venus has managed to maintain the strength she has. She was the first one with her brother when they brought him into the Sutter General emergency room, very much unresponsive. Although I would join her later as we sat outside the room Mark was in, there wasn't much we could do other than hold one another after Mark's heart stopped beating again and again. We could hear the monitor code. We saw emergency room physicians and nurses rushing in and out. There was little else we could do.

The wife that is Venus is now the last surviving member of a family of four. She lost both her mother and father to cancer. And now she's lost her baby brother -- Barky she would sometimes call him. Somehow she has to deal with his. The only thing I can do at this point is be here to support her, in whatever she may need.

So you can imagine how I felt that day when Katie Amaral messaged me to say she was in the Governor's Office. I couldn't get out of my State Senate chair quickly enough. I needed the distraction from the thoughts going through my mind about my brother-in-law and how things could have gone so horribly wrong. Katie offered that distraction -- and I can't thank her enough for it.

Backyard Orchard Culture Pear Trees
You see, Katie is responsible for many of the fruit trees growing in the Bird Back 40. There wouldn't be a five-in-one Pride Peach Collection without her help. The Harrow Delight and Blake's Pride pear trees also found their way into a raised bed thanks to her efforts.

To be honest -- I haven't felt like doing a whole lot since Mark's passing. Working in the yard does provide some relief, but it's just an escape from the reality of this thing called life. At some point I have to get back to living life. That's been a tough assignment. How can I possibly blog about heirloom tomatoes when this is hanging over my head?

Celina Marie and Marquitos Stromberg
Mark leaves behind a wife and two children. Our niece and nephew now have to face the reality of growing up without a father. That's not easy. I remember how I felt when my mother told me that my father had passed away in the hospital. I was nine years old. I grew up without a father. You can grow up without one. I'm living proof of that. But it was anything but easy.

Perhaps that is the answer then? Be there for the kids? We can't be a father to them, but we can sure do everything we possibly can to be the best and most attentive uncle and aunt (or Tio and Tia). I suppose that is the answer then. Be strong for the children. Be strong because strength and mentoring is what they need the most right now.

It isn't easy. But we're up to the task. So long, Mark Stromberg. And thanks for the visit, Katie Amaral. It came at an opportune time.

China Garden

Saturday, March 7, 2015

China Garden-Malakoff Diggins State Park
One gets an almost spiritual feeling when entering this place. This is China Garden, located in the Nevada County Gold Rush Community of North Bloomfield, also known as Humbug, in the Malakoff Diggins State Park. It has remained untouched since Humbug was designated a state historic park in the mid 1960's. But at one time, this place bustled with the activity of gold miners and families who practiced a real "Farm to Fork" movement.

They had too. Corner grocery stores didn't exist. If you wanted good and nutritious food in a gold mining camp like Malakoff Diggins, families either took action to feed themselves or they went hungry during the winter. Faced with that nuclear option in the early days of the gold rush, the Chinese miners that populated Malakoff Diggins set aside this nearly flat and wide property to grow all sorts of tasty summer and fall produce that was absolutely essential to keeping families well fed and healthy.

Entrance to China Garden Located in Humbug
In my last posting, I introduced you to a little known character by the name of Felix Gillet. Felix is responsible for importing thousands of fruit and nut tree offerings to Nevada County from his native France, where he essentially helped jump-start and lay the groundwork for the agricultural bounty that California is known for today. For the vast number of fruit and nut trees in both commercial and home orchards today are related to the groundbreaking work of a one Felix Gillet.

Gillet died in 1908. But the fruit and nut offerings he offered through his Barren Hill Nursery in Nevada County from the late 1860's up until the day he died bear witness to the impact he had on the West Coast agricultural industry. If you get a chance to speak to "Amigo" Bob Cantisano, who I introduced in my previous posting, he'll bend your ear for hours about Gillet's work and contributions. There are thousands of fruit trees that Gillet sold to gold miners and provided to gold mining camps during the great California Gold Rush, and those trees, despite their ancient age, are alive to this very day.

Felix Gillet
That Twenty Ounce Apple Tree that Cantisano discovered on the grounds of the old Buck's Ranch delivered a bounty of apples to gold miners during the height of the gold rush. It's still alive and still delivering a bounty of apples today. That White Adriatic fig tree on the banks of the Yuba River that served miners during the height of the gold rush, is still delivering figs to this very day. The men and women who planted Gillet trees by the thousands are long gone and mostly forgotten. And the fruit trees they planted now provide a nice meal for the bears and other wild creatures that roam old, abandoned, gold rush mining encampments.

But Gillet -- for all his marvelous accomplishments and work -- is not well remembered. You won't find a statue of him anywhere, although there is a memorial plaque located outside the former grounds of the Barren Hill Nursery. There's precious little mention of Gillet and his groundbreaking work. Other fruit tree breeders of the period, like Luther Burbank for example, are far better known and remembered for their work.

"Amigo" Bob Cantisano
Burbank, by the way, received most of his original fruit tree stock from, you guessed it, Felix Gillet.

So why isn't Gillet's memory preserved? Why has he been pushed off the pages of horticulture history? Why does it take a man like Amigo Cantisano to remind us of Gillet's contributions?

There might be one reason.

Before I go any further, I need to be honest with you. I approached a great number of people about this question, about my suspicions, and offered to include these observations in this blog posting. Not one was willing to respond. A Nevada County historian who has extensively studied the history of Chinese miners and mining camps was so unnerved by my request that he pushed it off to Amigo Cantisano. But he wasn't the only one. There were four of five others who declined comment. And I can't blame them.

Venus at Malakoff Diggins State Park
This is a touchy subject. I'm asking historians and others to delve into the minds of people who are no longer here. They are no longer around to defend themselves or explain the puzzling actions they took. How can you look into the mind of someone who died in 1908 and derive a reasonable answer to the question of: "What was this man thinking?" To those that I did contact, and chose not to respond, I do understand. No hard feelings. This is a blog dedicated to fruit and vegetable gardening and nothing more.

Felix Gillet was more than just a horticulturist -- a lot more. He was a prolific writer. He was also a leading citizen of Nevada County. He was so well respected by his peers that he was twice elected to the Nevada City Town Trustees. From 1878 to 1881, he helped make the city government more effective and progressive and reportedly never missed a session. He was a trustee during construction of a new city hall.

Workingmen's Party of California
Gillet was also a leading member of the Workingmen's Party of California.

Hold the phone a minute. Step on the brakes. Cue up the record scratch sound effects. Did he just write that Gillet was a leading member of the Workingmen's Party? Yes, I did. Do you remember your history of California? The Workingmen's Party had a very short date with California history, but they are responsible for one very special and dubious accomplishment. They helped craft and pass the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, one of the most racist actions ever taken by the United States government.

The Chinese Exclusion Act, which wasn't formally repealed until we were in the depths of World War II, essentially singled out one race of people, Chinese immigrants in California, and told them to "get lost." The law carried a clear message to people of Chinese descent: "pack up and get out." Not only did it outlaw Chinese immigration to the United States, it led to racist segregation policies that banned Chinese-Americans from living in certain communities.
Political Cartoon of the Period

Have you ever wondered why so many cities and communities in California had or still have areas that are referred to as "China Town?" It's because, for the longest time, these were the only parts of towns and communities that Chinese-Americans were allowed to live in. And, what's more, this racial harassment was allowed to continue unabated for decade after decade after decade. That's more than sixty long years if you're counting -- a lifetime for some people.

That's right. Felix Gillet was a legendary fruit and nut tree breeder, horticulturist and a leading citizen of Nevada County. He was also a racist son of a bitch. Next to slavery and the internment of U.S. citizens of Japanese descent during World War II, the Chinese Exclusion Act is a stain on our proud history.

Chinese Miner-Malakoff Diggins State Park Museum
Did Gillet play a role in this racial hatred? There's no doubt. For in April 1881, Nevada City passed an ordinance that stated the following: “all Chinese shall be removed from Nevada City within 60 days." I haven't found any evidence to suggest this removal actually took place. But I can tell you there were no Chinese miners living in Humbug when it became a state park in the mid 1960's. They had all departed, leaving only their proud history behind.

But this is just the start of these mental conundrum that has consumed a part of me. The fact that Gillet hated the Chinese is well documented. This doesn't surprise me. What does surprise me is this: If you walk on the grounds of China Garden today, Amigo Cantisano will point out about 50-60 Gillet fruit trees that the Chinese miners purchased and planted.

Fruit trees propagated by Gillet
China Garden-Gillet Pear Tree
 ring this property. They are easy to spot in the photos. Do you see the trees that are in a winter dormant stage? They look like they are dead? They're not. They are just taking a winter nap. Each and every one of the trees you see in China Garden is a Gillet fruit tree, purchased by Chinese miners who worked and lived in the Malakoff Diggins community.

Ah -- but China Garden wasn't the only Chinese mining camp in gold rush territory. There were hundreds of them. The remnants of these camps can be found as far north as Shasta and Siskiyou Counties and as far south as Tulare and Kings Counties. Amigo Cantisano hasn't had the chance to visit all of them. But of the camps he has literally stumbled across, he's found Gillet's fruit tree signature there.

I've found this signature too, although I didn't know it at the time. It's located on a 600 acre ranch just above Fiddletown in Amador County. This was once a Chinese mining camp, and the mines that Chinese miners dug underneath the lava caps covering prehistoric rivers and streams in their quest for gold are clearly visible. And -- located in the middle of this ranch -- is the largest pear tree I've ever seen in my life.

It had grown to immense proportions when I first saw it nearly a decade ago. Fifty feet high and loaded with pears, the roots of this gigantic fruit tree had managed to grow into an underground water table that sustained it. It had somehow managed to survive the massive wildfires that burn through these remote, largely unpopulated, canyons every 40-50 years.

I saw entire flocks of birds populating every branch of this majestic fruit producer. And, as the birds pecked at the fruit this tree gave, much of it fell below to turkeys and other wild animals waiting for a fruit snack at the base of this tree.

As much as I wanted one of these pears -- I dared not tread there. Did you know rattlesnakes also like pears? They do. Trust me on this. As much as I wanted to take a piece of that agricultural history home with me on that day -- I wasn't up to battling an ornery rattlesnake.
Dormant Fruit Tree-Humbug

There is no doubt in my mind now that this tree, which had been planted by Chinese miners, is yet another remnant of Felix Gillet's Barren Hill Nursery. Although I've alerted Amigo Cantisano to the presence of this tree and he agrees that it probably came from Gillet's operation, he has no great urge to visit there. He's got a list of other places to visit first. Gillet's trees are planted everywhere.

And that's the mystery. That's my personal mental conundrum. For it's clear that the Chinese miners were snapping up fruit trees from Gillet's Barren Hill Nursery by the thousands. They helped make him the legendary success that he was. But, in return, Gillet led a movement that led to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act? He voted on a resolution to remove all Chinese citizens from Nevada City?

Museum at Malakoff Diggins State Park
What in the world was this man thinking? This is part of a community that put his nursery business on the map! They bought his product. Without the Chinese mining community, Gillet would not have accomplished the measure of success that he did -- not even close.

Yet, his response was: "get out?" I still can't make sense of it. And those whom I've contacted regarding this mystery haven't felt the need to respond. I can't blame them. This is a tough nut to crack.

Could this racial hatred be one reason why Gillet isn't remembered or celebrated for his contributions to the nut and fruit tree industries on the West Coast? I think that answer might quite possibly be yes, and I do have some recent history that might prove my suspicions to be correct.
Formerly Known as "Goethe Park"

In late 2007 or early 2008, Sacramento County Supervisors received troubling information that a popular river park used by generations of families was named after a man who openly praised the Nazi Party and supported a movement called "Eugenics."

Not only did Charles M. Goethe openly praise the work of a one Adolph Hitler, he created the Eugenics Society of Northern California. He strongly believed in forced sterilization of those deemed "socially unfit," and was an open supporter of Hitler's efforts to purify the Aryan race before the outbreak of World War II.

Even though Goethe was a lifelong Sacramentan and is widely given credit for establishing California State University, Sacramento (CSUS), Supervisors couldn't move quickly enough to remove the Goethe name from every trace of county property. Charles M. Goethe park was quickly renamed "River Bend Park."
Charles M. Goethe

"It's a public park where everyone should feel welcome," said Supervisor Roberta MacGlashan, who spoke in support of the name change and was quoted by the Sacramento Bee.

But Sacramento County Supervisors weren't alone in taking this kind of action. Although Goethe may be responsible for the creation of CSUS, his name cannot be found anywhere on campus. On June 21, 2007, the Sacramento City Unified School District Board voted to rename the “Charles M. Goethe Middle School” to the “Rosa Parks Middle School.”

But not everyone agreed with these changes. Opponents suggested that Goethe lived in another era of time where views such as his were more widely accepted. It was therefore "unfair" to expose and judge his views in this era of "political correctness."

I'm sorry, but I don't buy that. Not for a single, solitary second.

You see, my father was one of many who "lived" the Nazi experiment. He was just one of several thousand men who were captured by Nazi forces in the ill-fated "Raid on Dieppe," during World War II and would spend the next three years living the "Nazi experiment" in a Nazi-run prisoner of war camp.

During his first year of captivity he was kept in shackles and routinely tortured. Although treatment of Allied prisoners improved somewhat as fortunes turned against the Nazi's in the later years of the war, my father suffered a brutal beating at one point for the crime of stealing a turnip.

Why did he steal a turnip? If you guessed that he might have been hungry due to mass food shortages during the war, that would probably be a good guess.
Chinese Temple in Oroville CA

If Mr. Goethe ever had the misfortune of running into my father at any point in time after the war, can you imagine how my father would have reacted to his "pro Nazi" views? Dad would have punched him in the nose. And he would have kept on punching until someone stopped him.

The passage of time is no excuse for errors and mistakes in judgement. Refusing to learn from these mistakes and errors only dooms us to repeat them again.

Should we then forget the contributions of legendary fruit and nut tree provider Felix Gillet for his racist views and actions against Chinese miners in California? No, I don't think that's right either. I don't think he should be forgotten. I don't think his work should be filed away in some forgotten filing cabinet. I think he should be remembered and celebrated for all his accomplishments.
Outside the Former Barren Hill Nursery

Yet at the same time, it should never be forgotten that he wasn't a perfect man. Most men aren't perfect. Gillet is just one of many. Both his accomplishments and his mistakes should be held in the same light of truth and transparency.

Have we forgotten the names of our nation's founding fathers? Do school children still learn about the Declaration of Independence and the immortal words that Thomas Jefferson wrote? "All Men are Created Equal."

Yet Jefferson kept slaves. He kept hundreds of men and women in a lifetime of enslavement. Did those words in the Declaration of Independence apply to them as well? Or should that line have been rewritten to claim "Some Men are Created more Equal than Others?"

While it's been interesting to learn about Gillet's work and enjoyable to pay a visit to Malakoff Diggins State Park and the town of Humbug, I don't think I'll ever feel the same way about fruit trees again.

Then again, thinking isn't such a bad thing. See Amigo Cantisano lead a short tour of China Garden here.

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GOLD! Gold in the Bird Back 40!

Sunday, March 1, 2015

Twenty Ounce Apple Tree-Bird Back 40
Well -- not really gold per se. Sorry to get you excited. I did not unearth golden nuggets during the latest "Big Dig" in the Bird Back 40. But -- I will tell you this much. I brought some gold rush history back home and planted it. Soon, provided the wife that is Venus and I are lucky, we'll be munching on what the Gold Rush 49ers munched on more than a century ago.

This is prime bare root fruit tree season in California and across the rest of the country. It's warming up fast outside in California, but there's still a little time left to head out to your favorite nursery and purchase the fruit tree of your choice. This happens to be a very good time for it! The nurseries are stocked to the gills with every fruit tree variety under the sun. Peaches, nectarines, plums, apricots, apples, you name it.

Flavor Finale Pluots (Delicious)
Do you like fruit cocktail trees? One tree with three or four different varieties of fruit grafted to it? You'll find that as well. How about the new and exciting introductions from Dave Wilson Nursery? The Pluot? Plumcot? Aprium? The Pride Peach Collection? Yes sir! You'll find that your local nursery has plenty of them in stock as well.

The Bird Back 40 is stocked with DWN specialty trees -- from the Honey Crisp Apple to the Flavor Finale Pluot. Look closely enough and you'll spot the Pride Peach Collection (five Pride Peach selections grafted to one tree). You might even spot an Aprium. Maybe...

"Amigo" Bob Cantisano
But this year we decided to do something a little differently. For, it was last year when I read a wonderful story in the Home and Garden section of the Sacramento Bee about a man by the name of "Amigo" Bob Cantisano. Bob is a Nevada County native who helped start the Heaven and Earth Nursery in North San Juan (Felix Gillet Institute), a magical place designed to preserve and protect the gold rush fruit tree history of a one Felix Gillet.

Who is Felix Gillet and why have you and I never heard of him? I could bore you with volumes of details that I've learned about this legendary character and his rightful place in California fruit and nut tree history, but I won't. Suffice to say, Felix was an original California pioneer. He immigrated to the United States from France, and some years later made his way out to the gold fields in California.

Felix Gillet
Felix, however, didn't come here to pan gold. Although he did have some mining claims, nobody is quite sure what Felix did with them. Nope -- Felix was a barber by trade. He owned and operated a barbershop in Nevada City, where he also sold "French Finery" such as pens, stationary and toys. But his biggest contribution to California agricultural history was yet to come.

Gillet returned to France in 1864 to learn the nursery trade, and upon his return to Nevada City, he purchased 16 acres of land that had been stripped clean and timbered by gold miners. He would name this his Barren Hill Nursery. And, it's on this tiny plot of land where Gillet helped jump start not only the California fruit and nut tree industry, but the nut tree industries in neighboring Oregon and Washington State as well.

Bigarreau de Mai Cherry (Gillet Introduction)
Gillet spent thousands of dollars on importing fruit and nut trees from France via ship and then rail to Northern California, where he helped adapt his French offerings to the California climate. He is directly responsible for many of the fruit trees grown in California today, in not just backyards like ours but commercial orchards as well.

Cantisano, who has been promoting Gillet's groundbreaking work for decades, has managed to find thousands of Gillet fruit trees in old gold rush mining camps and in gold rush communities like Nevada City. Surprisingly, these trees, which are more than 150 years old, are still alive and still very productive.

Heaven and Earth Farm-North San Juan
During a recent presentation to the Nevada County Historical Society, Cantisano pointed out just one of dozens of cherry varieties that Gillet introduced to California. It's called the Bigarreau Gross de Mezel. Please don't ask me to pronounce that, because I'll fail miserably. Did you know this is still widely grown in California and elsewhere? It is, but the name of it has changed. Today we call it the Bing Cherry.

Have you ever eaten a Bing Cherry before? Then Cantisano says "you've tasted Felix Gillet." But it didn't stop with fruit and nut trees. Gillet was also responsible for importing French wine grapes into California. Have you heard of varieties called Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Merlot, Sirah and Petite Sirah?

Twenty Ounce Apple
If you've ever had a glass of any of these wines, Cantisano will tell you that "you've tasted Felix Gillet."

As I began to learn more about Gillet and his work, it struck me that he laid the foundation for modern agriculture in California. Short and sweet, there would be no Dave Wilson Nursery without Gillet and his introductions. There would be no Floyd Zaiger and Zaiger Genetics, the family that brought us the Pluot and many other recent introductions.

Gillet wasn't the only breeder introducing fruit trees to California during the Gold Rush. There were others. But he was the only large provider located in old gold rush territory. Today, if you find a fruit tree growing at an old mining camp somewhere in Butte, Nevada, Placer, Sierra, Plumas, El Dorado, Amador or Calaveras Counties, chances are it came from Gillet's Barren Hill Nursery. And, if you ask Cantisano, he will tell you that he's literally stumbled onto thousands of them. Yet, at the same time, he'll also admit that he's barely scratched the surface of how many Gillet fruit introductions are still out there -- waiting to discovered -- just as the gold nuggets were waiting for gold rush miners that flocked to California.

Barren Hill Nursery Property
So -- in honor of this man's unique history and Amigo Cantisano's work to preserve Gillet's contributions, Venus and I ordered two fruit tree selections from the Heaven and Earth Farm: the Twenty Ounce Apple and the Birchville Beauty (Update: I've recently learned the Birchville Beauty may, in fact, be the Bigarreau de Maia cherry. Roughly translated, that's May Sweet Cherry). Both mother trees were discovered at long-abandoned mining camps in Nevada County. Both are more than 150 years old. Both are still very productive.

The drive to this nursery was an adventure in itself. Heaven and Earth Farm is located off Highway 49 above Nevada City. Highway 49 is in good enough shape, as are most of the connecting roads. But it's that second, third and fourth turns that are a little interesting.

Soon, you find yourself turning left on something that should be called "You Call This a Road?" And then there's that right on "This Looks More Like a Game Trail Than a Road." It's one of them "white knuckle" type drives that you're not going forget anytime soon.

Venus with Adam Nuber-Heaven and Earth Farm
Both apple and cherry tree have found a home in the Bird Back 40, but that's not the end of this story. No, it's really just beginning. It would seem to me that someone who contributed as much as Gillet did to California agriculture would not only be remembered, but celebrated.

But he's not. I'd never heard of Felix Gillet until I read Debbie Arrington's story about Amigo Cantisano and his Heaven and Earth Farm. Why isn't there a statue of this man in front of the headquarters of the California Department of Food and Agriculture? Why has Felix Gillet been forgotten? Pushed off the history pages of Horticulture?

I have my feelings and suspicions as to why. It's a subject that I will tackle with my next blog posting. Until then, dear readers, I've got two new fruit trees to water and care for.